Counseling is a broad term which encompasses all the fields of life. For the convenience of study, the scholars have divided the concept of counseling into various types. All these types are based on the general principles which run the process of counseling. The experts have pointed out the following well-defined
approaches to the theory and practice of counseling :-
Directive counseling :-
The directive Counseling, which is g also called as prescriptive or counselor-oriented counseling, was founded by Prof. Williamson, University of Minnesota, USA. He holds that the counselor is competent, mature and qualified person. .He has the ability to handle a problem and can advise the counselee. regarding the solution of the problem. The process of counseling should evolve around the counselor, Counselor is the person who can lead the counselee out of the problematic situation. The counselor owns the responsibility of solving the problems of the counselee.
- The directive counseling refers to the counseling strategy in which the counselee follows the directions of his/her counselor to solve the problems.
- Directive counseling refers to a counseling process in which the counselee depends on the directions and experiences of the counselor for the solution of his problems.
- This approach of counseling is counselor-centered. The counselor designs the strategy for his counselee.
- The focus of attention in the directive counseling is ‘the problem’ rather than ‘the counselee’. But it does not mean that they are two different things.
- The counselor plays an active role in this approach of counseling. He is well aware of the situation and wishes to control the conditions according to his own will.
- The counselor employs various tools of research for the collection of date about the counselee.
- The counselor prepares suggestions for the solution of the problems faced by the counselee. The counselee can get rid of the painful situation by acting upon the suggestions advised by the counselor.
Non-directive counseling :The non-directive counseling, which is also termed as permissive or client-centered counseling, has grown out of reaction to the directive approach of counseling. This new approach was founded by its chief exponent Carl Rogers. He believes that every individual has to right and ability to choose a right path to attain the goals of life. In the non-directives approach, the counselor pushes himself into the background and allows the counselee to play on the front foot. Rogers calls his approach of counseling, as ‘client-centered counseling as it evolves around the personality of the client. This counseling aims at facilitating each person in his self-directed process of becoming.
- The non-directive counseling is concerned with the counseling process in which the counselor, aids his/her counselee in solving his/her problems by himself/herself so, as to lead a better and balanced life.
- Non-directive counseling is a counseling approach which aims at facilitating each person in his self directed process of becoming.
- This approach is counselee-centered. It evolves around the personality of the counselee.
- Non-directive counseling not only aims at solving the problems of an individual but also trains him to solve his problems by himself.
- In this approach of counseling, the counselor creates an environment of mutual trust so that the counselee may express his feelings and expose himself.
- This approach of counseling is based on non-intervention. The counselor does not intervene in the expressions of the counselee.
- The counselor has no authority to impose his wishes on the counselee. He cannot close the doors of choice for the counselee also. The counselor should help the counselee in the understanding of the problems.
Eclectic counseling :-The eclectic counseling is a counseling approach which combines the features of both directive and non-directive approaches to counseling. Carl Rogers and Williamson adopted two opposite lines of action in connection with counseling approach. We are aware of the fact that the purpose of either of the counseling approaches is the welfare of the counselee. Both wish to make the counselee self-reliant and independent. It means that counselee is the focus of the counseling process. The experts have observed various limitations and demerits in both of counseling approaches. Keeping in view the weaknesses of two traditional approaches to counseling, F.C.Thorne presents a new approach to counseling namely the ‘eclectic counseling’. He believes that it is convenient for a counselor to alternate between directive and non-directive techniques rather than rigidly sticking to a particular mode of counseling. According to Thorne, eclectic counseling refers to a deliberate attempt, made by the counselor, to combine direction and freedom as the
- The eclectic counseling refers to the freedom to the counselor to use whatever procedures or techniques seem to be the most appropriate to any particular situation or to any particular counselee.
- The eclectic counseling is characterized by its freedom to the counselor to use whatever procedures or techniques seem to be most appropriate to any particular time for any particular client.
- The eclectic counseling is one who is willing to utilize any procedures which hold promise to solve the problems of the client.
- Methods of counseling may change from client to client or even With the same client from time to time. This is the easiness that is the specialty of eclectic counseling.
- Flexibility is the key note of this approach of counseling.
- Freedom of choice and expression lies open to both the counselor and the counselee.
- A feeling of comfort is realized both by the counselor and the counselee in this approach of counseling.
- Both the counselor and the counselee observe the experience of mutual confidence and faith in the relationship.